Contingent liabilities are possible or present obligations of sufficient uncertainty that it does not qualify for recognition as a provision, unless it is assumed in a business combination (note 4). Contingent liabilities are reviewed continuously to assess whether an outflow of resources has become probable.
Summary of Group's contingent liabilities
As a multinational company being present in many jurisdictions the Group is involved in a number of tax proceedings. One of such proceedings is that in November 2015 the Group received a report from the German tax authorities following their tax audit covering Apollo-Optik in the years 2008-2012. This report included findings and viewpoints of the tax authorities on German VAT aspects. The Group is contesting the viewpoints of the German tax authorities on the tax position and will defend its position vigorously, if needed in court. As the Group is sufficiently confident to sustain its position on this matter, no provision has been recognized in the consolidated financial statements. If the Group is unsuccessful in resolving this matter, the exposure, including the period after 2012, is €30 million. The matter remains pending while formalities have not been further processed by authorities during 2019.